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Voltage of Stepper Motor

When discussing the voltage of a stepper motor, it is important to first clarify whether it is the Rated Voltage or the Drive Voltage.

Rated Voltage:

The rated voltage of a motor can be obtained directly from the motor's data sheet. The rated voltage is usually listed in the technical data section of the data sheet, along with other motor parameters such as rated current, holding torque, and step angle.

If you do not have access to the motor data sheet or the rated voltage is not listed, you can try to determine the rated voltage by measuring the resistance of the motor coils. Using a multimeter set to resistance mode, you can measure the resistance of each coil. The resistance values of all coils should be approximately equal and can be used to calculate the rated voltage of the motor using Ohm's Law:

Voltage = Current x Resistance

For example, if the rated current of the motor is 1.5 A and one coil has a resistance of 1.2 ohms, the rated voltage of the motor can be calculated as follows:

Voltage = 1.5A x 1.2 Ohm = 1.8V

Drive Voltage:

Each stepper motor must be connected to a driver in order to function, so the drive voltage is applied to the stepper motor driver. When talking about the voltage of a stepper motor, usually the drive voltage is meant.

Note: There are two types of stepper motor drive modes: constant current drive and constant voltage drive. Currently, constant voltage drive has been essentially eliminated.

The drive voltage is not calculated according to the formula for rated voltage, but is determined using the input voltage of the driver. Information about the input voltage of the driver can be found on the control panel of the driver or in the manual, and it is usually a range value. This means that the same motor and the same driver can operate at different drive voltages.

The following table shows the recommended drive voltages depending on the motor size. Higher drive voltages result in better motor performance at high speeds, but also in higher heat generation. 

Motor SizeDriving Voltage
Nema 8 - Nema 1712 - 24VDC
Nema 23, Nema 2424 - 48VDC
Nema 3436 - 60VDC/30 - 70VAC
Nema 42 - Nema 5260 - 100VDC/110 - 220AC

Please note that the recommended drive voltages are not absolute values and can be extended depending on the rated current of the motor and the requirements of the application. 

If you have any questions about this, please contact STEPPERONLINE technical support.

Updated on: 04/03/2024

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