Articles on: Learning & FAQ

What the Stepper Motor Torque Curve Looks Like at Different Voltages (48V/36V/24V/12V)

The torque characteristics of stepping motors are: the higher the driving voltage, the higher the current, and the lower the motor speed, the greater the torque and the greater the heat.
So for the same motor, will different driving voltages cause its torque to change?

We conduct torque tests on 23HS45-4204S under different voltages, as shown in the figure below:

It can be seen that there is a certain relationship between the torque and voltage of the stepping motor. Under different voltages, the torque performance of stepper motors will be different. Here are some basic concepts about this relationship:

The relationship between voltage and torque: the torque of the stepping motor is proportional to the current, and the current is proportional to the voltage. Therefore, as the voltage increases, the current through the motor increases accordingly, resulting in an increase in torque. However, this relationship is not linear because the resistance and inductance of the motor also affect the change in current.

Torque at low voltage: At low voltage, the torque of a stepper motor may be smaller. This is because at low voltage, there is less current, which causes the motor to produce less torque. At this time, the stepper motor may not be able to overcome the resistance of the load, resulting in a decrease in performance.

Torque at high voltage: At high voltage, the torque of a stepper motor may be larger. This is because at high voltages, the current is greater, resulting in greater torque being produced by the motor. However, too high a voltage may cause the motor to overheat, affecting its lifespan and stability.

Optimal voltage: In order to find a balance between torque and motor life, it is usually necessary to choose an appropriate voltage. This means selecting the proper voltage based on the motor's ratings and application requirements.

To sum up, the torque of a stepper motor behaves differently at different voltages. When selecting a stepper motor and the corresponding driving voltage, it is necessary to fully consider the performance requirements of the motor, load conditions, and the rated parameters of the motor to ensure that the motor can provide stable and efficient performance in practical applications.

Updated on: 11/07/2023

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